Constitution

Federation of Rowan College Educators

Local 2373, AFT, AFL-CIO

Article I

Name

The name of this organization shall be the Federation of Rowan College Educators, Local 2373 of the American Federation of Teachers.

Article II

Objectives

The objectives of the Federation of Rowan College Educators, Local 2373, shall be:

  1. To represent members and constituents in negotiations with employing authorities at all levels.
  2. To receive, process, and act on complaints and grievances from members and constituents.
  3. To promote academic freedom in all its ramifications, viz.:
    (a) To oppose censorship of, interference with, and control of the process of higher education by pressure groups or special interest groups.
    (b) To seek for members and constituents an intellectual climate which will permit them to carry out freely teaching and research functions associated with professorship.
    (c) To limit all arbitrary authority which is inimical to the democratic process, to freedom of inquiry and debate, and to fair employer-employee relationships.
  4. To foster excellent education at the higher level by all means available:  teaching, research, scholarship, and other academic pursuits.
  5. To maintain contact with legislative bodies and governmental officials in order to work for goals promoting the welfare of members and constituents and the attainment of high standards of education at Rowan University.
  6. To attain fair practices in the field of employment, recontracting, tenure, promotion, and working conditions.
  7. To promote democracy through example and by insisting that it be practiced as well as preached in all areas of college life.
  8. To bring members and constituents into relations of mutual assistance and cooperation.
  9. To eliminate all forms of discrimination based on race, sex, age, religion, ethnic origin, life style, or political ideology.

Article III

Membership

Section 1. Membership in the Federation shall be open to those employees who are members of the bargaining unit including librarians, full and part-time professional staff, and full and part-time faculty. Membership is also open to adjunct faculty and librarians. In case of a discrepancy, the Executive Board will rule and the ruling shall be ratified by a majority vote at the next membership meeting.

Section 2. A Member may be expelled or suspended for a specific duration to be determined by the Executive Board for reasons which shall be specified in the By-Laws. If the member does not accept the decision, he or she may have the Board’s decision submitted to the first regular meeting of the Federation. The decision reached by the Board may be changed by a two-thirds (2/3) majority of the members present at the meeting.

Section 3. No discrimination shall ever be shown toward individual members or applicants for membership because of race, sex, age, religious faith, national origin or political activities or belief.

Article IV

Nomination and Election Procedures

Section 1.

(a) Any member in good standing may run for office upon presenting a nominating petition containing the signatures of 10 members, or who in a mailed ballot nominations procedure shall have been nominated on 10% of the ballots cast.
(b) The Elections Committee shall oversee the process of nomination and election. Elections shall be held in accordance with the Taft-Hartley Law.
(c) Disputed elections shall be decided in accordance with procedures established by the national office of the American Federation of Teachers.

Section 2.

(a) Elections shall be held between March 10 and March 25 once every two years for all officers and elected personnel.
(b) Successful candidates will assume office on June 1 following their election.
(c) All nominees for office may submit to the Elections Committee an autobiography and/or statement on or before February 28 in the year of the election. The autobiography and/or statement shall be distributed to the membership.
(d) The order of the names of candidates for each office on the ballot shall be determined by lot after a drawing by the candidates under the supervision of the Elections Committee.

Section 3.

(a) Members of the Elections Committee who choose to run for office must tender their resignation immediately from said committee.
(b) If there are not at least two (2) candidates for each position, the Elections Committee will provide a place on the ballot for a write-in candidate. If no candidate appears for a given office, the Elections Committee shall present at least one (1) name.
(c) All ballots shall be kept for a period of one year after an election, at which time they shall be destroyed.
(d) Any member whose ballot is challenged may appeal on the day of the election to the Executive Board. The effect shall be considered with due dispatch as provided by the By-Laws.

Section 4. Vacancies occurring between elections shall normally be filled within thirty (30) days, summer vacancies shall normally be filled within thirty (30) days of the beginning of the fall term, by a special election under regular election procedures to fill out the rest of the unexpired term as per Sections 1 and 3. However, with the approval of the next membership meeting, the Executive Board may designate an acting officer to serve in the office vacated until the next regular scheduled election is held.

Article V

Section 1. Officers of this local shall be: President; Vice President 1; Vice President 2; Recording Secretary; Corresponding Secretary; Treasurer; Delegates to the Council of NJ State College Locals; Delegates to the local Labor Council (CLC); Legislative (COPE) Representative; Negotiator;  Membership Chairperson; Grievance Chairperson; and Adjunct Coordinator 1.

Section 2. The duties of the President shall be as follows:

(a) To act as chairperson for all special and general membership meetings.
(b) To act as chairperson for sessions of the Executive Board.
(c) To be an ex-officio member of all standing and special committees.
(d) To be co-signer of any legally or financially binding documents of the Federation.
(e) To serve on any negotiating committee.
(f) To employ and dismiss with the approval of the Executive Board all clerical and professional staff. The President is responsible for the direction, supervision, and performance of this staff.
(g) To represent the viewpoint of the Federation before legislative groups.
(h) To be responsible with the Budget Committee for preparation of the annual operating budget.
(i) To notify the membership of action on resolutions.
(j) To serve as a delegate to the Council of New Jersey State College Locals and to the local Labor Council.
(k) With the approval of the Executive Board, to appoint additional representatives to any bargaining team of the CNJSCL.
(l) To serve as a delegate to any state Council of Locals or national AFT Convention and to any state or national AFL-CIO convention to which we are entitled to send delegates.

Section 3. The duties of the Vice-President 1 shall be as follows:

(a) To serve in place of the President, when the latter is not available to chair meetings.
(b) To serve on any local negotiating committees.
(c) To be a member of the Executive Board and an ex-officio member of the Grievance Committee.
(d) To function as co-signer in the absence of the President.
(e) To serve as a delegate to the Council of State College Locals.

Section 4. The duties of the Vice President 2 shall be as follows:

(a) To serve as a member of the Executive Board.
(b) To act as liaison between the Union and the University Board of Trustees.
(c) To assist and advise President and Vice President 1 in matters of University policy and Board of Trustees activities.
(d) To provide leadership for constitution and by-laws revisions. To make recommendations for changes as needed.

Section 5. The duties of the Treasurer shall be as follows:

(a) To be responsible for maintaining and safekeeping of all financial records of the local.
(b) To be a co-signer, with the President, on any financially binding document of the local.
(c) To submit a yearly financial report on or before March 1 of each year and to make available all financial records upon request to any member.
(d) To serve on the Executive Board.
(e) To serve as an ex-officio member of the Budget Committee.
(f) To make financial reports to the Executive Board on request.
(g) To receive and to cause to be deposited all monies of the Federation in a Federally insured bank.
(h) To be bonded in the amount of $1,000. Premiums will be paid out of the local treasury.
(i) To co-sign, with the President, all checks and financial disbursements.
(j) To pay all approved bills and to transmit dues to state and national Federations.

Section 6. The duties of the Recording Secretary shall be as follows:

(a) To take notes at and make minutes of each special and general meeting and of each Executive Board meeting.
(b) To be responsible for preparation of and distribution to the members the local minutes of all special and general meetings.
(c) To maintain an up-to-date file of all minutes of special and general meetings and of Executive Board meetings.
(d) To keep a separate file of all resolutions
(e) To serve on the Executive Board.
(f) In case of disability, illness, or resignation of the Treasurer, the Recording Secretary shall be authorized to so-sign checks and disbursements.

Section 7. The duties of the Corresponding Secretary shall be as follows:

(a) To arrange, in consultation with the President, for all meetings of the Executive Board and for all special and general meetings.
(b) To inform the Executive Board and the membership of the time, place, and agenda for all Executive Board, special and general meetings.
(c) To review with the President all incoming correspondence, and to assist the President in making appropriate disposition of such correspondence.
(d) To assist the President in preparing outgoing correspondence.
(e) To maintain accurate files of all correspondence.
(f) To serve on the Executive Board.
(g) In case of absence, disability, illness, or resignation of the Recording Secretary, to serve as Acting Recording Secretary.
(h) On behalf of the membership, to correspond with members on matters of personal concern.

Section 8. The duties of the COPE Chairperson shall be as follows:

(a) To keep informed on all legislation affecting the Federation.
(b) To coordinate the operations of the Federation toward the passage of favorable legislation.
(c) To cause to be introduced legislation authorized by the membership meetings.
(d) To represent the viewpoint of the Federation before legislative bodies.
(e) To serve on the Executive Board
(f) To hold regular meetings of the GSFCT COPE.
(g) To serve as a delegate to the Camden Central Labor Union.
(h) To serve as liaison with CLU-COPE.

Section 9. The duties of the Delegates to the Local Labor Council shall be as follows:

(a) To represent the Federation at meetings of the Local Labor Council and to serve as a liaison with them.
(b) To serve on the Executive Board.

Section 10. The duties of the Delegates to the State Council of Locals shall be as follows:

(a) To serve as the delegate of the Local to the state council representing the nine state colleges in the bargaining unit fixed by the Public Employees Relations Commission.
(b) To serve on the Executive Board.

Section 11. The duties of the Negotiator shall be as follows:

(a) To conduct all local negotiations and to serve as Chairperson of the local Negotiation Committee.
(b) To serve as a delegate to any bargaining team of the CNJSCL.
(c) To serve as a delegate to the CNJSCL.
(d) To serve on the Executive Board.
(e) To report to the Executive Board and membership meetings.

Section 12. The duties of the Membership Chairperson shall be as follows:

(a) To coordinate the activities of department and building representatives for the recruitment of new members and to keep all members of the bargaining unit informed.
(b) To serve on the Executive Board.
(c) To report to the Executive Board and membership meetings.

Section 13. The duties of the Grievance Chairperson shall be as follows:

(a) To serve on Executive Board.
(b)

Section 14. The duties of the Adjunct Coordinator 1 shall be as follows:

(a) To serve on Executive Board.
(b) To serve on all local negotiating committees, representing adjunct issues.
(c) To serve as adjunct delegate to the CNJSCL.
(d) To serve on as delegate to any adjunct bargaining team of the CNJSCL.
(e) To serve on local bargaining committees, representing adjunct issues.
(f) To assist the Grievance Chair with adjunct faculty complaints and concerns.
(g) To attend local and statewide meetings, campaigns, and events concerning adjunct issues and to report on such matters to the adjunct membership.
(h) To represent adjunct faculty issues before various legislative groups.
(i) To coordinate with AC2 adjunct membership recruitment.
(j) To collect information as necessary to identify adjunct issues and concerns.
(k) To convene meetings of the adjuncts as necessary.
(l) To analyze adjunct utilization reports (i.e. A-459 legislation mandate) and make recommendations to the local.

Section 15. The duties of the Executive Board shall be as follows:

(a) To administer the affairs of the organization subject to the decisions of a membership meeting which is in turn subject to the decision of a membership referendum.
(b) To specify whether each applicant meets membership requirements as named in the Constitution.

Section 16. The Executive Board

(a) The term of office for members of the Executive Board shall be two years.
(b) An Executive Board quorum shall consist of more than 50%.
(c) The President shall prepare a written agenda for each meeting of the Executive Board, subject to the approval of the Executive Board members. It shall be presented to them at least one week in advance, shall be posted in the faculty dining room, and shall be made available to any member upon request. Any member of the Executive Board may add an item to the agenda by notifying the President two weeks in advance of the scheduled meeting.
(d) The President may call a meeting of the Executive Board or one-third (1/3) of the membership of the Board may require that the President call a meeting of the Board.
(e) The frequency of meetings of the Executive Board shall be stated in the By-Laws.
(f) Meetings of the Executive Board shall be open as per the By-Laws to all members in good standing. They shall be open to constituents and others upon majority vote of the Board. Executive sessions are forbidden.
(g) Any member of the Executive Board who fails to attend meetings for two consecutive meetings, per consecutive months, unless excused by a majority of the Executive Board, shall be considered to have resigned from the Executive Board and from his/her office.

Section 17. Expenses incurred in Federation business will be reimbursed if approved by the Executive Board.

Section 18. No member shall run as a candidate for more than one elected office. Committee assignments are excluded from this prohibition.

Article VI

Membership Meetings

Section 1.

(a) There shall be one general membership meeting in September, one in February, and a minimum of four at other times as called by the President.
(b) A special general membership meeting may be called by the President, by a majority of the Executive Board, or at the request of 10% of the membership.
(c) A week’s notice of all general meetings must be given to the members, along with the reason for calling them and the agenda therefore.
(d) Not less than 10% of the membership shall constitute a quorum at all general membership meetings.

Section 2.

(a) Only members in good standing shall have the right to vote on any question presented at these meetings.
(b) The order of business shall be arranged by the Executive Board.
(c) The members present at the meeting may change the order of the agenda by a majority vote.
(d) A membership meeting shall have the power to discuss and to decide matters brought before it and to make binding recommendations to the Executive Board.
(e) At the end of the agenda, new business may be brought to the attention of the membership.

Article VII

Building Representatives and Department Representatives

Section 1. The Building Representatives shall be chosen by a method specified in the By-Laws.

Section 2. The term of office of a Building Representative shall be two years and he/she shall take office on June 1.

Section 3. The duties of a Building Representative shall be as follows:

(a) To act as liaison officer between the Executive Board and members and constituents in his/her building.
(b) To distribute literature and to give information relating to union activities.
(c) To assist in recruiting new members.
(d) To coordinate the activities of department representatives in his/her building.

Section 4. Department Representatives shall be chosen by a method specified in the By-Laws.

Section 5. The term of office of a Department Representative shall be two years and he/she shall take office on June 1.

Section 6. The duties of a Department Representative shall be as follows:

(a) To act as liaison officer between the Executive Board and members of his/her department.
(b) To distribute literature and to give information relating to union activities.
(c) To assist in recruiting new members.
(d) To be available to assist the Grievance Committee with other grievances, their preparation and processing.
(e) To assist with the preparation and processing of grievances initiated by members of his/her department.
(f) To convene from time to time meetings of AFT members in the department to discuss issues of common concern.

Article VIII

Public Review Board

Appeals from a decision of the Executive Board or a membership meeting of this organization may be taken to the Public Review Board established by the American Federation of Teachers.

Article IX

Committees

Section 1. Such committees as are specified in the By-Laws shall be established; the By-Laws shall also specify the size of each committee.

Section 2. The term of office of each committee member shall be one year.

Section 3. The President shall call for volunteers for committee service on or before March 1. If a larger number of volunteers than the number specified in the By-Laws present themselves, an election shall be held at a membership meeting on or around March 15 by secret ballot, conducted by the Election Committee.

Section 4. If not sufficient people volunteer, the Executive Board may appoint the remainder.

Section 5. The chairperson shall be elected by a majority vote of the committee members except when elected by the membership of the Union.

Section 6. At least two members of the Negotiating Committee and the Grievance Committee shall be replaced each year if possible.

Section 7. Only members of the Federation may serve on committees.

Article X

Recall

Recall petitions for any officer, chairperson, committee member, building representative, or department representative must be signed by 25% of the membership. Upon submission of said petition, the Executive Board shall submit it to a referendum. A 2/3 majority of those voting shall be required to recall such a person.

Article XI

Referenda

Provisions for referenda shall be set down in the By-Laws, except that provisions specifically mentioned in this Constitution may not be altered.

Article XII

Affiliations

Delegates to conventions of affiliated organizations shall be elected under the direction of the Elections Committee in accordance with the Taft-Hartley Law.

Article XIII

Dues and Assessments

Section 1. The amount of dues shall be specified in the By-Laws.

Section 2. In cases of emergency, a membership meeting may vote by a 2/3 majority an assessment not exceeding an amount to be specified in the By-Laws. This money must go into a separate special account and may be used only for the purpose for which it was voted. Any funds left over after the emergency has been met shall be returned on a pro-rate basis to the members who contributed.

Section 3. Anyone who wishes to contribute to the Union treasury may do so, and the President is authorized to solicit contributions in case of need.

Article XIV

Amendments

Section 1. Amendments to this Constitution may be proposed either by a majority of the Executive Board or by a petition signed by 10% of the members.

Section 2. Constitutional amendments shall be adopted by majority vote at two successive membership meetings. Text of proposed constitutional amendments shall be circulated among the members of the local at least one week prior to the meeting at which the proposed amendment is to be presented for second reading.

Article XV

By-Laws

By-Laws to implement this Constitution shall be enacted by a two-thirds (2/3) majority of the membership meeting. Proposed changes in or additions to the By-Laws must be placed on the agenda of the meeting and the members must be notified one week in advance.

Article XVI

Definitions and Interpretations

Section 1. The vote necessary to adopt policies or enact measures shall be by majority of those voting except where a different requirement is clearly indicated.

Section 2. All disputes in connection with the meaning, construction, or interpretation of any part of this Constitution shall be decided by the Executive Board, subject to a vote of a membership meeting or a referendum.

Section 3. Roberts’ Rules of Order shall govern the conduct of all meetings of all bodies, except where otherwise provided in the Constitution or in the By-Laws.

Article XVII

Supremacy of the Constitution

Section 1. This Constitution and every part thereof shall take precedence over any by-law, motion, resolution, or any other act or measure adopted by any body or agency of the Glassboro State Federation of College Teachers.

Section 2. No part of this Constitution may be eliminated, suspended, revised, or limited in force and effect by any by-laws, motion, resolution, or any other act or measure, except by an amendment of this Constitution duly adopted.

Article XVIII

Availability of the Constitution

Section 1. Three copies of this Constitution and all future amendments shall be submitted to the National Office of the American Federation of Teachers.

Section 2. Copies shall be made available to other affiliated organizations upon request.

Section 3. Copies shall be available for any member of this Federation upon request to the Secretary.

Article XIX

Ratification

Each article of this Constitution, when ratified by a two-thirds (2/3) majority of a membership meeting, shall take effect immediately. However, certain organizational arrangements of a temporary nature may be adopted, to continue until not later than April 1, 1973. Officers elected before March 21, 1973, shall take office at once for a regular term of office until 1976.

Article XX

National Convention

The President and Secretary shall certify the election and forward the credentials of all elected delegates and alternates to the National Convention of the AFT to the National Office as soon as possible but not later than fifteen (15) days before the convening of the National Convention.

BY-LAWS

Article I

Definitions

Section 1. The word member as used in the Constitution shall mean a member in good standing.

Section 2. Complaint shall refer to an oral communication, which may be handled informally by the President or other officer designated by him/her through conversations with college authorities.

Section 3. Grievance shall refer to a formal, written communication with substantiating documents. It shall be submitted to the Grievance Committee. Grievances shall be handled in accordance with the procedures negotiated with the employing authority.

Article II

Complaints and Grievances

Section 1. Because a collective bargaining contract is valueless unless rigidly enforced, the President, the Executive Board, and the Grievance Committee are hereby empowered and directed to process vigorously all complaints and grievances received from members and give them all the assistance to which they are entitled by virtue of membership dues and/or constituency.

Section 2. The President may handle oral complaints by telephone at his/her discretion. If time is not of the essence, he/she may request that the complaints be written and submitted as a grievance to go through regular channels.

Section 3. The complainant or grievant who feels that due speed or attention has not been exercised may appeal to the membership at a regular or special meeting.

Article III

Committees

Section 1. The following committees shall be standing committees and shall each have from six to ten members: Bargaining; COPE/Legislative Action; Department Chairs; Educational Issues; Elections; Good and Welfare; Grievance; Human Rights; Membership; Part-time Staff; Professional Staff; Publicity; Resolutions; Scholarship.

Section 2. Committees shall have the right to establish their own quorums and procedures, subject to review and recommendations by a membership meeting or a referendum. Recommendations shall be binding only if passed by a two-thirds (2/3) majority.

Section 3. Ad Hoc Committees may be appointed from time to time by the President.

Section 4. Committee chairpersons shall attend meetings of the Executive Board when items appear on the agenda pertinent to their committee.

Section 5. Space for at least one first year member of the bargaining unit shall be reserved for each committee.

Article IV

Professional Staff, Adjunct Faculty and Adjunct Librarian Representation
and Alternates to CNJSCL

Section 1. One delegate to Council of NJ State College Locals shall be elected from among members who are professional staff.

Section 2. One delegate to Council of NJ State College Locals shall be elected from among members who are part-time faculty or part-time professional staff and shall serve on the Executive Board.

Section 3. One delegate to Council of NJ State College Locals shall be elected from among members who are adjunct faculty or adjunct librarians and shall serve on the Executive Board.

Section 4. Five alternates to the representatives to the CNJSCL shall be elected by regular election procedures and shall serve on the Executive Board.

Article V

Building Representatives and Department Representatives

Section 1. The Membership Chairperson shall, with the approval of the department representatives affected, appoint building representatives. In buildings which house multiple departments or offices, one additional building representative shall be appointed for every 25 AFT members above the first 25.

Section 2. Department representatives shall be elected by majority vote of the Union members of a department. If requested by a majority of the Union members of the department, a member of the Elections Committee shall supervise the election.

Section 3. In the event a department cannot agree on a representative, the building representatives shall function as department liaison.

Section 4. Department representatives and building representatives shall function as a Committee of the Union, chaired by the Membership Chairperson. Additionally, the Committee of Building and Department Representatives shall elect three representatives to serve on the Executive Board.

Article VI

Expulsion or Suspension of Members

Section 1. A member may be expelled for crossing a picket line of the local Federation for the purpose of strike-breaking or of aiding and abetting strike-breaking tactics. A member who has a legitimate reason for going on campus during a strike should evidence his or her good faith by requesting a pass from the captain of pickets or the chairperson of the strike committee. Expulsion shall take place only upon affirmative vote of two-thirds (2/3) of a membership meeting.

Section 2. The following constitutes grounds for suspension from membership: dues in arrears for more than 60 days after the due date. The Executive Board may take this action upon notification by the Treasurer of such dues delinquency.

Article VII

Executive Board Meetings

The Executive Board shall meet at least once a month from September through May and at least once during the period of June to August.

Article VIII

Conduct of Referenda and Elections

Section 1. The Elections Committee shall have the option of using either mail balloting or in-person voting at all referenda and elections, provided that secrecy of balloting is maintained and that eligibility of each voter is rigidly observed.

Section 2. Ballots or sample ballots for all referenda and elections shall be distributed at least one week prior to the date of the balloting or to the deadline for return by mail, as the case may be.

Section 3. Voting in all referenda and elections must be by secret ballot.

Section 4. The Elections Committee is charged with the responsibility for the security of ballots and for initial determination of the eligibility of each voter. Appeals from their decisions regarding ineligibility may be made to the Executive Board in accordance with provisions in the Constitution and in the By-Laws.

Section 5. Ballots for in-person voting may be distributed by mail in advance of the referendum or election or at the polling place at the time of the balloting, as determined by the Elections Committee.

Section 6. Results of referenda and elections shall be posted in the faculty dining room immediately after counting of the votes, but no later than 48 hours after the balloting, weekends not included. All candidates for office shall be notified as speedily as possible of outcomes affecting them.

Section 7. All ballots shall be kept for one year and then destroyed.

Section 8. Any candidate listed on a ballot, or one representative designated by him/her, may observe in person the counting of the ballots upon notification to the Elections Committee not less than 48 hours in advance of the date of the in-person voting or of the deadline for return of mail ballots, as the case may be.

Section 9. Referenda may be initiated by a majority vote of the Executive Board, by a petition containing the signatures of 10% of the membership, or by a majority vote at a membership meeting.

Section 10. Referenda made in pursuance of the Constitution and By-Laws shall take precedence over decisions of the Executive Board and of membership meetings.

Section 11. Requests for recounts shall be directed to the Executive Board. A negative decision may be appealed to the next membership meeting. Further appeals must be considered a disputed election and directed to the Public Review Board of the American Federation of Teachers.

Article IX

Dues and Assessments

Section 1. Dues shall be as per schedule adopted May 10, 1979.

Section 2. Assessments may not exceed $20.00 per year.

Article X

Resolutions

A resolution shall remain in effect regardless of a change in the administration of the Union until revoked by a majority of those attending a regular membership meeting.

Article XI

Election of Officers

Section 1. Elections to office must be by a majority of votes cast. In case no candidate for a given office receives a majority on the first ballot, a run-off election shall be held as soon as possible between the two candidates receiving the largest number of votes, but in no case later than two weeks from the date of the counting of the ballots in the original election.

Section 2. Committees shall be chosen by a plurality.

Article XII

Financial Audit

Section 1. The Executive Board shall conduct a yearly audit and report to the membership.

Section 2. Books shall be opened to the membership.

Section 3. An official audit shall be held once every three years duly by a Certified Public Accountant.

Section 4. If deemed necessary and duly voted upon by one-half of the membership at a regular meeting, an official audit by an impartial party can be called for.

Article XIII

Agency Shop Fees

Section 1. Political Objections by Dissenters

Any person making dues payments or service fee payments to the union in lieu of dues under agency shop provision in the union’s collective bargaining agreement shall have the right to object to the expenditure of his/her portion of such payments for activities or causes of a political nature or involving controversial issues of public importance only incidentally related.

Comments are closed.